Perceptions, Policing and Impact

  • Gross, Kali N., and Cheryl D. Hicks. “Introduction—Gendering the Carceral State: African American Women, History, and the Criminal Justice System.” The Journal of African American History 100, no. 3 (2015): 357-65. 
  • Hinton, Elizabeth Hinton and DeAnza Cook, “The Mass Criminalization of Black Americans: A Historical Overview,” Annual Review of Criminology 4, no. 1 (2021): 261-286. 
  • Murch, Donna. “Crack in Los Angeles: Crisis, Militarization, and Black Response to the Late Twentieth-Century War on Drugs,” Journal of American History 102, no. 1 (2015): 162–173.
  • Taylor, Clarence. “Introduction: African Americans, Police Brutality, and the U.S. Criminal Justice System: Historical Perspectives,” Journal of African American History 98, no. 2 (2013): 200-205. 
  • Western, Bruce, and Christopher Wildeman.“The Black Family and Mass Incarceration.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 621, no. 1 (2009): 221–242.

Mass Incarceration and Resilience

  • Coates, Ta-Nehisi. “The Black Family in Age of Mass Incarceration.” Atlantic Monthly, October 2015.
  • Harris, LaShawn. “New Perspectives on Criminal (In)Justice and Incarceration.” Journal of African American History 100, no. 3 (2015): 448-460.

Local, National and Global

  • Balto, Simon Ezra. “’Occupied Territory’: Police Repression and Black Resistance in Postwar Milwaukee, 1950–1968.” Journal of African American History 98 (Spring 2013): 229-52.
  • Johnson, Karl E. “Police-Black Community Relations in Postwar Philadelphia: Race and Criminalization in Urban Social Spaces.” Journal of African American History 89, no. 2 (2004): 118-134.

Criminal Justice Advocacy in Action